The following set of terms is provided to familiarize you with
the basic jargon and acronyms used in the computer field, the
Internet, and systems design. All trademarks both marked and
unmarked belong to their respective companies. To review the
glossary, either scroll throught the entire list or click on a
4GL - initials for "Fourth Generation Language" (See listing).
AB - Action Bar - the area at the top of the primary window that contains keywords providing the user with access to actions in the window. After users request a choice in the action bar, a pull-down-choice (PDC) appears.
ABC - Action Bar Choice - referring to a single keyword on the action bar.
About - a pull-down-choice (PDC) on the action bar that displays product ownership.
Access Key - the data element(s) which are used to identify and search through a physical file.
Access Method - the technique used to access data on a physical file device. Types of access methods include sequential, index sequential, hierarchical structure, network structure, relational structure, etc.
Accessibility - a timing consideration used in PRIDE "Information Driven Design" for specifying when and where data is to be retrieved to produce information for delivery to end user destinations. Accessibility answers the question, "Can I get to the data when I need to?" How data is accessed is a function of output. (See Availability, and Output).
ACM - initials for the Association for Computing Machinery, a computer industry association.
Administrative Procedure - a detailed set of human processable operating instructions required to accomplish a specific process within a sub-system. Administrative procedures detail manual steps along with explanations and examples. They are procedures to be used for such things as performing routine or clerical assignments, making decisions, report distribution, input preparation, or for using "office automation" related equipment. (See Sub-System and Operational Step).
Agile - a technique for writing a computer program quickly.
AIX - IBM's version of the UNIX operating system (see listing).
Anchor - an HTML statement used to establish a relationship between two files, such as from a web page to another web page (thereby providing the means to "surf" the web, or from a web page to a sound file (WAV) or animation file (AVI), etc.
Animated GIF - a special GIF file (see definition) consisting of two or more graphical files merged together; when displayed on a web page, it gives the illusion of motion. Not all web browsers support animated GIFs, but most do. Also called "Dancing GIFs"; for example:
ANSI - initials for American National Standard Institute; standards institution.
Anti Virus - software specifically designed to detect and remove a computer virus from a computer.
API - initials for Application Programming Interface; specific operating system interfaces allowing the execution of programs.
Application (or App) - an arbitrary grouping of one or more programs (refers to the application of the computer to a given problem). An application should not be confused as a full-fledged Information System.
AS/400 - IBM mid-range series of computers
ASCII - American National Standard Code for Information Interchange - standard control characters and graphic characters (as used in a simple text file).
Availability - a timing consideration used in PRIDE's "Information Driven Design" for specifying how and when data is collected from various sources within an enterprise. Availability answers the question, "Is the data there when I need it?" How data is made available is a function of input. (See Accessibility, and Input).
AVI - initials for Audio Video Interleaved; a file format for digital movies.
Bandwidth - a measure of the range of frequencies a communications network can transmit at or near maximum power levels.
BASIC - a procedural programming language. (See Procedural Languages).
Batch - a method of processing that involves the processing of several transactions and does not necessarily require instantaneous response. Batch processing is especially suited to entering or retrieving large volumes of data from the enterprise data base. (See Interactive, Processing Method, and Transaction).
Baud - a unit of signaling speed and refers to the number time the state (or condition) of a line changes per second. Communications lines and modems are measured in terms of baud rates; some examples: 14,400 (14.4), 28,800 (28.8), 33.6, 56.6, etc.
BCC - to send a Blind Carbon Copy e-mail; as in typed letters and the postal service, a user can send an e-mail to another user without other recipients knowing of it. This is normally accomplished by putting parentheses around an e-mail address; for example: (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Benefits - something that contributes to an improvement in condition or promotes profitability for a given enterprise, either tangibly or intangibly. When writing benefits, begin with a transitive verb, such as: Improve, Maximize, Minimize, etc. Be sure to substantiate your claim; do not simply say "Improved cash flow." Instead, say, "Improved cash flow by reducing inventory overhead."
"Beta" software - a pre-release of computer software; software still under development and being distributed to the public for testing purposes. "Alpha" software refers to software still being tested by the vendor.
Bill of Materials - an itemized account of all of the parts of a product and their relationships in order to assemble a complete product. In IRM terms, the bill of materials for information includes systems, data and business resources.
Bill of Materials Processing (BOMP) - a mechanized way of tracking all of the resources in a product.
BIOS - initials for Basic Input Output Service; the fundamental computer settings.
Blink - an HTML statement used to cause text to flash on a web page. NOTE: Not all browsers accept the blink statement (at which time the text is displayed "as is").
Bloatware - slang expression referring to computer software that consumes computer resources (e.g., memory, processor, and disk drive), thereby causing the computer to slow down and be inefficient.
BLOG - slang expression referring to a web page devoted to topics relating to a specific subject (e.g., News, Essays, etc.). For an example, click HERE.
BMP - Bitmap; a graphical file format.
Bookmark - a saved Internet address which can be quickly loaded into your web browser. The term is primarily associated with the Netscape Navigator browser. Other names include "Quicklist", "Favorite Places", etc.
Boot-up - slang expression meaning to start-up a computer. The term is derived from the expression, "pull one's self up by the boot-straps."
BOMP - initials for "Bill Of Materials Processing" (see listing)
BPI - initials for Bytes Per Inch; a unit of measurement for data on tape.
BPS - initials for Bytes Per Second; communications device speed (e.g., modem). (See KBPS, and MBPS).
Break Even Point - a point in time where cost savings match accumulated
development expenses. Typically calculated as:
BEP = Investment divided by Average Annual Savings.
Business Process - (see Sub-System).
Byte - a group of eight adjacent binary digits treated as a unit and often represent a single character.
C - a procedural programming language. (See Procedural Languages).
C++ - variation of the C programming language oriented to Object Oriented Programming (see listing).
Cache - a storage buffer containing frequently used computer instructions and data. Used to reduce access time of the hard disk.
CAD - initials for "Computer Aided Design" (see listing).
CAM - initials for "Computer Aided Manufacturing" (see listing).
CASE - initials for "Computer Aided Software Engineering." Computer tools that provide support for software engineering and manufacturing activities. Their perspective is on software only.
CC - to send a Carbon Copy of an e-mail; as in typed letters and the postal service, a user can send an e-mail to other recipients.
CD-ROM - referring to a computer's Compact Disk (CD)
CGA - initials for Color Graphics Array; a type of computer monitor screen format.
CGI - Common Gateway Interface - collection of interactions between a web browser and and file server. Special programming scripts for processing data stored in a specific file directory on the server.
Chat Room - an area on the Internet (see IRC) or an on-line service (such as AOL, CompuServe, or Prodigy) where people can "talk" (by typing messages) on specific subjects.
Check Boxes - input device used in a web "form" to select options; for example:
Chief Information Officer (CIO) - an executive level officer who represents the chief information broker/architect/strategist of a company. Ideally, the CIO reports to the Chief Executive Officer (CEO) and maintains a lateral working relationship with the Chief Operating Officer (COO) and Chief Financial Officer (CFO).
CIM - CompuServe Information Manager - software specifically designed to access CompuServe.
CIO - initials for Chief Information Officer (see listing).
Client - slang expression referring to a computer that operates on a communications network transmitting and receiving data to/from a file server. (See Server, and Thin-Client).
Client/Server Computing - computing technique for processing data between a "client" computer and a file "server." (See Client, and Server).
Clipboard - a common work file provided by the operating system allowing the exchange of data between programs.
COBOL - acronym for COmmon Business Oriented Language; a procedural programming language (see listing).
COM PORTS - referring to the communication ports on a PC to enable the use of modems and other communication devices.
Command File - a PC file (BAT or CMD) containing basic computer operating commands.
Command Line or Prompt (aka DOS prompt) - the ability to type a command directly to the computer (as opposed to through a GUI interface).
Compiler - a program translator that converts source code into executable programs. (See Source Code).
Computer Aided Design (CAD) - computer software/hardware used to assist in the design of a product.
Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM) - computer software/hardware used to assist in the manufacturing of a product, such as industrial robots.
Computer Literate - slang expression referring to a person's proficiency with a computer. The expression is actually erroneous; "literate" refers to literature, which doesn't relate to a person's skill or talent; a more apt expression would be "computer proficient."
Computer Procedure - a detailed set of machine processable instructions required to accomplish a specific process within a sub-system. A computer procedure consists of one or more computer programs linked together and executed in a prescribed sequence. (see Sub-System and Program).
CONFIG.SYS - the PC's configuration file used to record computer operating specifications; used when starting ("booting") the computer.
Cost/Benefit Analysis - an analysis of the costs or expenses incurred by a project in comparison to the benefits derived from implementing the project.
CPU - Central Processing Unit (see Microprocessor).
Critical Path - the longest path in a project methodology which is critical to the timely completion of a project or part of a project. A project always has a critical path until it is completed or cancelled. The path may vary according to accomplishments.
Critical Path Method (CPM) - a project planning and scheduling technique which was developed in the mid-1950's by Morgan R. Walker of the E.I. DuPont de Nemours Company Engineering Department of Wilmington, Delaware and James E. Kelley of Sperry Univac. It is an approach for defining the structure of a project. It establishes a network of project phases with nodes to indicate start and stop points. Critical project activities are determined and are used as a point of reference for scheduling. The technique was originally developed for linear programming and was called "network analysis." (See PERT).
CRT - initials for Cathode Ray Tube; the computer's monitor/terminal screen.
CUA - initials for Common User Access; IBM defined standards for designing the user interface for a program (the GUI).
Cyberspace - slang expression for the Internet.
Data Base - all of the data necessary to meet the information requirements of an enterprise, regardless of where used or how stored. A DBMS is not a prerequisite for data base. A common misconception is that an organization's data base is only that data stored on direct access devices by the computer. Actually, the data base may reside in many physical forms (e.g., tape, microfiche, disk, paper, cards, etc.). By this definition, all enterprises have a data base. The where and how of storage is dictated by the time requirements for information. Because information needs vary over time and as a result of changing conditions, the data base should be readily expandable. This base should be both hardware, software and application independent. An integrated data base environment is one in which the various parts of the data base are available for shared use and coordination within the environment.
Data Base Management System (DBMS) - computer software used to store and retrieve data. Ideally, the intent of the DBMS is to share and re-use data between computerized systems.
Data Element - the digital representation of a fact or an event. It is the raw material required to produce information. There are three types of data elements: descriptive, indicative, and quantitative (see respective listings). A descriptive data element is used to describe names, routings, addresses, text, etc. An indicative data element is used to uniquely identify objects, in part or in full, and usually consists of identification numbers and codes. Quantitative data elements are numeric values, such as quantities and percentages. There are only three things that can happen to a data element: it can be created, updated, or referenced. Data elements also come in two forms, primary and generated (see listings). Primary data elements are entered into an information system by a user. Generated data elements are developed internally within the system and most often made up of quantitative data elements. Generated data elements are created based on some form of logic, such as a calculation or formula. (Also see Group Data).
Data Compression - computer software used to shrink the size of a file thereby making it more compact to conserve disk space and to transmit it over a communications line. (See ZIP).
Data Warehouse - technique for organizing a company's data so that a variety of query tools can access the data; similar in intent to an Information Center (see listing).
DB/2 - DBMS marketed by IBM. DB2/2 is a version designed for PC's.
DBA - initials for Data Base Administrator; a person responsible for administrating a DBMS.
DBCS - initials for Double Byte Character Set, the ability to handle oriental character sets (e.g., Japanese and Chinese alphabets).
DBMS - initials for Data Base Management System (see listing).
Deliverable - a reviewable result produced from the execution of a work step in a methodology. In systems development, a deliverable can take the form of either a document (usually a formal or informal report or working paper), a computer file or an executable program. Its intent is to substantiate that the work has been completed according to the methodology (see Methodology).
Descriptive Data - descriptive data consists of alphanumeric characters that are not strong enough to identify an object, but convey important business facts about an object, such as names, addresses, text, codes, etc.
DDL - Data Definition Language - a language enabling the structure and instances of a data base to be defined in a human-, and machine-readable form.
DHTML - Dynamic HTML - a richer version of HTML with more tags and rules to create web pages.
Dialer - computer software used to activate the computer's modem and connect with the Internet through an Internet Service Provider (ISP).
Digital Camera - a camera capable of taking and storing digital images in computer memory for downloading to a PC in a graphical file format; such as JPG or GIF.
DIMM - initials for Dual Inline Memory Module; a type of computer memory module.
DLL - initials for Dynamic Link Library, chunks of re-usable program code that is called for and executed as required by other programs (see Subroutine).
Domain - the main name/Internet address of a user's Internet site as
registered with the InterNIC organization, which handles domain registration
on the Internet. For example, the "domain" address for IBM is:
In this example, "http://" represents the Hyper Text Teleprocessing Protocol used by all web pages; "www" is a reference to the World Wide Web; "ibm" refers to the company, and; "com" specifies that it is a "commercial" enterprise (versus "gov" for government, "edu" for education, or "org" for a non-profit organization). There are minor variations for assigning unique web domains, but this format represents the principal means of assignment.
DOS - Disk Operating System - 16 bit operating system.
Download - receiving a file from another computer to your own.
Drivers - special software enabling the use of computer peripherals such as a video device, digital camera, printer, sound card, etc.
Drop Down List (see Selection List)
Dumb-terminal - slang expression referring to a monitor and keyboard attached to a remote computer (usually a mainframe) where the actual data processing is performed. No processing actually occurs locally at a dumb-terminal. (See Intelligent-terminal).
E-commerce - referring to the transaction of monies over the Internet; e.g., purchasing goods, banking, investments, etc. Also known as I-commerce.
EDI - initials for Electronic Data Interchange; computer software designed according to industry standards to enable the exchange of data between different systems.
E-Fax - sending and receiving faxes by computer (as opposed to fax machines).
Effectiveness - producing a desired result. Whereas efficiency is concerned with how well a task is performed, effectiveness deals with the necessity of the task itself. Effectiveness answers the question, "Are we doing the right things?" (See Efficiency and Productivity).
Efficiency - producing a desired result without waste. Efficiency is concerned with how well a task is performed. Effectiveness deals with the necessity of the task itself. Efficiency answers the question, "Are we doing things right?" (See Effectiveness and Productivity).
E-Mail - a protocol on the Internet which permits people to send messages and files between themselves.
Encryption - technique for altering data to prevent unauthorized use (e.g., misappropriation of credit card numbers).
Engineering - the planning, design and construction of an object; i.e., buildings, products, machinery, etc.
E-Phone - computer software allowing interactive messaging either by typing or audio/video.
Ergonomics - an expression referring to consideration given to the human element in systems design. During sub-system (business process) design consideration is given to the physical implementation of the system. Systems analysis must consider the human senses and intelligence level, as well as man/machine interfaces in determining an appropriate system implementation.
Ethernet - a popular LAN architecture allowing computers to work with each other over a common communications line.
Explosion - expression refers to the top-down decomposition of a product into its assemblies, sub-assemblies and parts. "Implosion" represents the reversal of this process. A product, such as an information system, is designed by explosion (top-down) and implemented by implosion (bottom-up).
Extranet - similar in nature to an Intranet, an Extranet refers to a closed network using the same type of protocols as the Internet; e.g., web browsers and e-mail; with this difference: it is only available to a company/organization and its suppliers/vendors and customers (depending on permissions and security); an Extranet is not accessible by the general public.
E-Zine - slang expression for an electronic magazine (paperless) as viewed on the world wide web.
FAQ - Frequently Asked Questions - A section on a web page primarily dedicated to answering common questions regarding a subject.
FAT - File Allocation Table - file management system used with a PC requiring the 8.3 file naming convention (e.g., EXAMPLE.TXT); FAT is supported by DOS, Windows, and OS/2 (see HPFS).
Feasibility Study - normally the first phase in a project used for specifying and analyzing a business problem/opportunity and proposing to management a course of action. It is usually one of the most important phases of a project due to its concentration on the proper identification and specification of business problems and requirements.
File - a logical and/or physical grouping of one or more records. A logical file is used to represent an object used in the operation of the enterprise. A physical file is used to describe a particular way to store data. Physical files can be implemented two ways; manually or computer-assisted. Computer files can be formatted (organized) many different ways; e.g., AVI, BMP, DOC, GIF, JPG, TXT, WAV, etc. A manual file is a storage location for inputs and outputs (human-readable forms and documents). A computer file is a storage location for machine-readable records.
Firewall - term used in reference to security measures used to safeguard computer resources from unauthorized use or corruption from outside Internet users.
Flowchart - graphical representations of system and software designs expressing processing movement ("flow"). Flowcharts are used as a planning tool in a manner similar to the way architects use perspective drawings or blueprints, and the way process engineers use flow diagrams to describe processes.
Form - 1. A document used to collect data (see Input), and; 2. A type of web page used to collect data (includes such things as field entries, check boxes, pushbuttons, text fields, radio buttons, etc.). After a person has completed the form, the data can be sent electronically to another person via e-mail.
Fortran - a procedural programming language (see listing).
Fourth Generation Language - a specification driven, non-procedural programming language used to interpret and manipulate data in a DBMS or some other computer file. (See Program Generator, and Report Writer).
Frames - sections of a web page that are displayed independent of one and other. Not all web browsers support "frames" based web pages, but most do.
Freeware - free computer software (see Shareware).
Frequency - an attribute of timing that defines how often information is required. This timing consideration will be used to determine the time cycle of sub-systems to produce the required information. Frequency specifies the specific time cycle (e.g., daily, weekly, monthly, upon request, etc.) in which the sub-system is to be processed and the number of times within the cycle this processing is anticipated to take place, (e.g., three times daily, once a week, twice a month, etc.). (See Information, Offset, and Response Time).
FTP - File Transport Protocol - a protocol on the Internet used to upload and download files from one computer to another.
Gantt Chart - a documentation technique developed by Henry L. Gantt which allows management to visualize work to be performed and scheduled in relation to a calendar. It is a useful tool for determining project schedules, as well as for monitoring actual performance. In this way, it can be used to identify the critical path of a project. Other expressions of a Gantt Chart include "Bar Chart," "Planning Chart," "Milestone Chart" or "Histogram." (See Critical Path).
GB (or GIG) - Gigabyte; one billion bytes (1,073,741,824). Refers to the number of bytes a computer can process or store, such as on disk or in memory. (See KB, and MB).
Generated Data - refers to data that relies on other data elements in order to produce the necessary result. This type of data can involve elaborate calculations and algorithms (e.g., Data-1 + Data-2 = Data-3). "Net Pay," "Balance Amount" and "Percent Complete" are some examples of calculated data. (See Primary Data, and Group Data).
GIF - Graphics Interchange Format - graphic file format; used to display photographs and illustrations.
Google - refers to a popular search engine on the Internet (http://www.google.com/)
Gopher - Internet protocol developed by the University of Minnesota used to upload/download files.
GPF - initials for General Protection Fault; a severe computer error causing the operating system (and computer) to fail.
Group Data - a form of generated data that represents a concatenation of indicative data elements in a prescribed format. For example, "Telephone Number" is a group data element consisting of "Area Code," "Exchange Number," and "Account Number" (for example: 727/786-4567). There are many other examples of "group" data: such as credit card numbers, product identification codes, public utility account numbers, etc.
Groupware - computer software used for interoffice communications and collaborative work; e.g., e-mail, e-phone, document processing, etc.
GUI - Graphical User Interface - industrial term referring to the graphical screen format of an operating system.
Hits - refers to the number of times a web page has been accessed (viewed) by someone.
Home page - the first page you view on a web site; aka Cover Page.
Horizontal rule - a straight line running left-right in a web page; typically used to divide sections; for example:
HPFS - High Performance File System - OS/2 supported file management system. Supports long file names.
HTML - Hyper Text Markup Language - a tag language used to develop web pages.
HTTP - Hyper Text Teleprocessing Protocol - used by all web pages as a part of its URL.
HREF - Hypertext REFerence - HTML statement used in
conjunction with "anchor" statements to establish relationships
in a web page; for example:
<a href="mailto:email@example.com">Tim Bryce</a>
Results in the following: Tim Bryce
Another example: <a href="http://www.ibm.com/">IBM</a>
Results in the following: IBM
IDE - initials for Intelligent Drive Electronics; a type of computer hard drive (disk).
IE - Internet Explorer (see below).
Illustrative Examples - sample inputs and outputs produced prior to software design so that a user can visualize its layout and content. For this purpose, illustrative output/input uses sample data values (not X, Z, 9, etc.). Prototyping tools are useful for preparing such examples.
Impact Analysis - an analysis of the impact of a proposed change to a part to the sub-assemblies, assemblies, products and storage areas that are affected by the part. An impact analysis results in a bill of materials of all of the resources affected by the proposed change. This listing can then be used for project planning, estimating and scheduling purposes. In this way, it is used for "what if" analysis purposes. In IRM terms, an impact analysis results in a bill of materials of information resources affected by the change to one resource. (See Bill Of Materials Processing).
Implosion - expression refers to the bottom-up assemblage of parts to build a product. "Explosion" represents an opposite process. A product, such as an information system, is designed by explosion (top-down) and implemented by implosion (bottom-up).
Indicative Data - data used to uniquely identify an object in part or in full. "Uniqueness" is an inherent property of indicative data so that it can be used to clearly differentiate occurrences of an object. This is why control numbers and codes are typically used as indicative data, as opposed to names. Names can be too vague. For example, there may be more than one employee named "John Smith." Without some form of qualifier, it is virtually impossible to distinguish one "John Smith" from another. Consequently, an "Employee Number" is assigned to uniquely identify each employee.
Information - the understanding or insight gained from the processing and/or analysis of data. Information is created as a result of the collection, processing and analysis of data in a prescribed manner. Information supports specific business related actions and decisions. The accuracy of information depends on the validity and completeness of the data and the processing logic used. There are three types of information: policy, control and operational. Policy information is used to establish policies and corporate direction. Control information is used by middle management to implement policy decisions and control corporate operations. Operational information is used by employees in the daily operations of the business, such as processing orders, payroll, and shipping products.
Information Center - a centralized location where end users can extract data for special interpretive purposes. The information center typically provides special tools like report writers and fourth generation languages to retrieve computer based data. This concept is only practical under a managed data base environment. Otherwise, inconsistencies will occur.
Information Highway - slang expression for the Internet.
Information Requirement - a specific need for information in order to perform actions and decisions related to the business of the enterprise.
Information Resource Management (IRM) - the function of controlling and coordinating all of the resources required to produce information, such as data, systems, and business resources. The concept of IRM is analogous to Materials Resource Planning (MRP) as used in manufacturing.
Information System - an organized and methodical approach for the collection, storage and retrieval of data necessary to produce information in a timely basis to satisfy business objectives. It is a product that can be engineered and manufactured like any other product. Because of this, a system has a hierarchical structure consisting of one or more sub-systems; consisting of one or more administrative procedures and one or no computer procedures; each administrative procedure consists of operational steps, and each computer procedure consists of one or more programs. Systems vary in size depending on the scope of information required and are often arbitrarily established. Systems communicate to each other through shared data. An information system may or may not be automated; a manual system may be more cost-effective. An information system is often erroneously referred to as a "data processing system," "software system," or a "computer system." (See System, and Sub-System).
INI - an Initialization file used by certain programs and contains the basic setup instructions enabling the program to execute.
Input - human-intelligible medium that is used to collect data to store in a data base.
Intelligent-terminal - slang expression referring to a computer attached to a remote computer (usually a mainframe) where data processing is performed both locally and remotely. (See Dumb-terminal).
Interactive - a method of processing which refers to the interaction and instantaneous responsiveness that a person requires in order to solve a problem. An individual works "interactively" through a problem by submitting transactions and obtaining results that possibly require more transactions until the problem is answered. This can be applicable to both manual and automated information systems. (See Batch, Processing Method, and Transaction).
Internet - a set of communications protocols that permits companies and organizations to exchange data. Examples of protocols include: the World Wide Web, E-Mail, File Transfer Protocol (FTP), Newsgroups, Gopher, Telnet, and others.
Internet Explorer - popular web browser produced by Microsoft. Operates exclusively in the MS Windows world (see Netscape Navigator).
Internet Service Provider (ISP) - a person or organization with a registered Internet server on the Internet. An ISP essentially provides two services: access to the Internet for local subscribers (thereby providing the means to send/receive e-mail, access the World Wide Web, etc.), and; provides web sites to customers (file space with direct access to the Internet).
InterNIC - organization which handles domain registration on the web. For more information on InterNIC, see their web page at: http://rs.internic.net/.
Intranet - term used to refer to a closed internal network using the same type of protocols as the Internet; e.g., web browsers and e-mail. An Intranet is not accessible by the general public.
I/O - Input/Output
IRC - Internet Relay Chat - a protocol on the Internet for typed conversations.
IRM - initials for Information Resource Management (see listing).
IRQ - Interrupt ReQuest; communications port settings for a PC.
ISA - initials for Industry Standard Architecture; standards group that specify how PC hardware is engineered and manufactured.
ISDN - Integrates Services Digital Network - a digital end-to-end telecommunication network that supports multiple services including, but not limited to, voice and data.
ISO - International Standards Organization - standards organization responsible for defining computer related standards.
ISP - Internet Service Provider (see listing).
JAD - initials for Joint Application Development; technique used in programming where the developer works closely with the end-user to design a program. Using application development aids such as a prototyping tool and program generators, the programmer prepares and reviews the layout of a screen or a report for the user before preparing the final executable program.
Java - programming language and trademark of Sun Microsystems, Inc. Java provides the ability to write a program that can execute on many different operating systems ("write once, run anywhere").
JPG - JPEG (Joint Photograph Experts Group) - graphics file format; used to display photographs and illustrations.
Juke Box - slang expression for a CD changer.
KB - Kilobyte; one thousand bytes (1,024). Refers to the number of bytes a computer can process or store, such as on disk or in memory. (See GB, and MB).
KBPS - initials for Kilobytes Per Second; communications device speed (e.g., modem). (See BPS, and MBPS).
LAN - Local Area Network - allowing multiple computers within a limited geographical area to communicate and share computer resources (see WAN).
LCD - initials for Liquid-Crystal Display; a type of plasma screen display typically found on laptop computers and other handheld devices.
Legacy Systems - slang expression referrings to an older information system currently in use by an enterprise.
Link - refers to a URL pointer (or "anchor") to another web page, thereby providing the ability to jump ("surf") between web pages.
M&JB Investment Company - developer and vendor of the "PRIDE" Methodologies for IRM.
Mainframe - refers to a large computer with far more capacity and processing speed than a PC. Because of this, mainframes are commonly used as file servers (see Server).
Maintenance - this activity is concerned with correcting errors or defects in a product. It is intended to correct the problem and make the product operate according to specifications. In most organizations, this represents approximately 5% to 10% of the systems development work effort. (See Modification/Improvement).
Marquee - refers to a technique used in developing web pages whereby special comments or messages are displayed at the bottom of the web browser and scrolled right-to-left in a "marquee" style.
Materials Resource Planning (MRP) - a manufacturing related activity concerned with managing the materials required to produce products. This includes collecting, inventorying, and distributing parts in the most cost-effective and efficient means possible. The concept of Information Resource Management is analogous to MRP (see IRM).
Materials Management - to receive, inventory and distribute parts to the assembly lines for building products. It is also concerned with the standardization and reuse of parts for various products.
MB (or MEG) - Megabyte; one million bytes (1,048,576). Refers to the number of bytes a computer can process or store, such as on disk or in memory. (See GB, and KB).
MBA - initials for M. Bryce & Associates (former name of M&JB Investment Company)
MBPS - initials for Megabytes Per Second; communications device speed (e.g., modem). (See BPS, and KBPS).
Meta comments - hidden statements in an HTML file used to register a web page with an Internet search engine.
Methodology - one or more phases of work to be executed in a prescribed manner. The methodology denotes a project's sequence of execution or network. All projects have a structure; some are based on key events to be completed and others are based on the structure of a product to be built. All projects have a beginning for planning, a middle for execution and an end for review. The beginning phase of most projects is performed through some form of feasibility study. The ending phase is usually an evaluation phase. Each phase, activity and operational step within a methodology must produce a reviewable deliverable to substantiate adherence to the methodology. (See Deliverable).
Microprocessor - the main processing unit or chip in a PC, sometimes referred to as chip or CPU.
Middleware - special software used to simplify the translation of technical protocols on a computer, e.g., application protocols, data base protocols, and operating system network protocols.
MIME - Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions - extensive e-mail messages and files are automatically converted to the MIME format (a data compression format) to economize file transfer. A MIME decoder is often required to decompress the file (freely available through most on-line services such as America Online).
Mirror - where one Internet site duplicates the content of another Internet site thereby expediting access to its contents.
Modification/Improvement (Mod/Imp) - the activity required to change or enhance an existing product. For most organizations, this will represent 85% to 90% of their systems development work effort.
Modeling - to develop a preliminary design of a product based on product specifications. The model is used to evaluate the product's viability and also serves as the pattern to complete the design.
Modem - MOdulator-DEModulator - a device used to send and receive data over a communications line. A modem may reside physically within a computer (an internal modem) or outside of it (an external modem).
Module - compilable program source code consisting of one or more subroutines written in the same programming language. It is not executable by itself. (See Subroutine).
Mosaic - first web browser, marketed by Spry, Inc.
Motherboard - refers to the principal board in a PC where the microprocessor and main circuitry is maintained.
Mouse - a pointing device for a computer.
MPEG (Moving Picture Experts Group) - file format for digital movies.
MRP - initials for Materials Resource Planning (see listing).
Multimedia - computer hardware/software with the ability to display video pictures (animation) and sound.
Multitasking - allowing multiple programs to be executed in parallel; allowed by certain operating systems, such as OS/2 and Windows 2000 (NT), not by DOS.
Multithreading - allowing multiple tasks within a single program to be executed in parallel; allowed by OS/2, not by DOS.
NDIS - Network Driver Interface Specification - an industry standard interface between network adapter software and LAN transport protocols.
NetBIOS - Network Basic Input/Output System - commonly used transport for PC local area networks (LAN). Application programs use NetBIOS for client/server or peer-to-peer communications.
Netiquette - expression for proper etiquette when working on the Internet (proper forms of expression).
Netscape Navigator - popular web browser and registered trademark of Netscape Communications Corporation. The Navigator is operational on a wide variety of operating systems, including Windows, MACS, OS/2, and UNIX.
NetVertising - term referring to advertising over the Internet.
New Systems Development - process of designing, developing and implementing new information systems for an enterprise based on a specific need. This represents progress to an enterprise in the form of totally new applications. (See Modification/Improvement and Maintenance).
Newsgroup - a protocol on the Internet devoted to disseminating information on various subjects. Proper name is Network News Transport Protocol - NNTP.
NNTP - Network News Transport Protocol. Newsgroups (see above).
NOS - Network Operating System - an operating system that specifically supports network protocols, such as Novell Netware, OS/2 Warp Server and Windows 2000 (NT).
Object Code - executable program (see Source Code).
Object Oriented Programming - a design technique for writing programs. Object Oriented Programming (sometimes referred to as "OOPS") stresses the reuse of software by classification. (See Structured Programming).
OEM - initials for Original Equipment Manufacturer; a vendor who manufacturers or assembles and re-sells computer equipment.
Offset - a timing consideration used to denote when sub-systems, procedures or program are to begin their cycles (i.e., hour, day, week, etc.). When a sub-system is performed "upon request" there is no offset since is not schedulable. (See Frequency, Information and Response Time).
Operating System (OS) - the basic machine software used to operate a computer. Some examples: Windows, DOS, Linux, OS/2 MVS, UNIX, Exec, etc.
Operational Step (Task) - the smallest unit of work when executing an administrative procedure. One or more operational steps make up an administrative procedure (see listing).
Ordered List - expresses how data is to displayed in a web page; in numeric order; for example:
OS - initials for Operating System (see listing).
Output - human-intelligible medium which transmits information to the user. Outputs can take many forms: a report, a CRT display, an audio response, etc.
Partition - a division of a physical storage device (disk) used to separate computer data and/or software.
PC - initials for Personal Computer.
PCMCIA - initials for Personal Computer Memory Card International Association; a PC card commonly used in laptop computers to enable modems for example.
PDC - Pull Down Choice - a single keyword under an action-bar-choice (ABC).
Pentium - Intel 32-bit microprocessor (aka 80586); registered trademark of Intel Corporation.
Perl - Practical Extraction and Report Language - scripting programming language for special web page processing.
PERT - a technique for planning, estimating and scheduling projects which was developed in 1958 by the U.S. Navy Special Projects Office, Bureau of Ordnance, in cooperation with Booz, Allen and Hamilton, a management consulting firm. PERT was originally used to develop the Navy's Polaris Weapon System. It utilizes the definition of a methodology for the completion of a project. A PERT network depicts the precedent relationships that exists between various phases, activities or operations, so that critical activities can be identified and the appropriate scheduling and resource allocations can be made. PERT was originally derived from the Critical Path Method (CPM). Like CPM, PERT also expresses nodes in the network and tries to express critical activities in the development of a project. The difference between PERT and CPM is basically that CPM uses one estimate and schedule, while CPM uses three: minimum, maximum and probable. (See Critical Path Method).
Phase - a prescribed set of one or more activities normally performed serially to accomplish specific project work. One or more phases make up a project. The sequence by which they are executed indicates the project structure (methodology) and usually has "deliverables" associated with them.
Playscript - a technique developed by Les Matthies used for writing administrative procedures. It is derived from a script for a play and describes the "actors" and their "actions" (operational steps). Computer programming procedural languages use derivatives of Playscript (e.g., COBOL, FORTRAN). (See Administrative Procedure and Operational Step).
Plug and Play - technique used by computer hardware vendors and vendors of operating systems to simplify the installation of peripheral hardware devices.
Plug-In - slang expression referring to complementary software supporting or enhancing another dominant program. For example, the Netscape Navigator web browser allows additional programs to "plug in" to the main program thereby allowing supplemental audio, video programs to be called and used by the browser.
POP - initials for Post Office Protocol; referring to the protocol used for e-mail.
Positions - a prescribed set of duties and responsibilities; another name is "job." Positions are implemented by human/machine resources.
PostScript - programming language used for printing.
PPP - Point-to-Point Protocol - allows a computer and a standard phone line to act as if they are directly connected to the Internet.
Precedent Relationships, Project - the relationship of work steps within a project denoting dependencies in execution (sequential execution and parallel path ("branching")).
PRIDE - M&JB's product line. Acronym for PRofitable Information by DEsign - through phased planning & control. "PRIDE" is the registered trademark of M. Bryce & Associates
Primary Data - primary data refers to data in its virgin state; as introduced to the system from an external source (such as a person or department). "Source" defines who is responsible for entering the data to a system, and who has ultimate authority for the definition of the data element. (See Generated Data).
Procedural Languages - programming languages which make use of procedural statements, such as COBOL, Fortran, C, Basic. Procedural languages are considered "third generation" (as opposed to "Fourth Generation Languages" - see listing) and were ultimately derived from the Playscript procedure technique (see listing).
Procedure - the detailed set of steps necessary to accomplish specific work. The steps consist of instructions either in human or machine readable terms that direct the performance of particular processing functions. (See Administrative Procedure and Computer Procedure).
Process Diagram - a diagram used in engineering to show the flow of a process or work flow. A flowchart is another form of process diagram. (See Flowchart).
Processing Method - an expression used to describe the approach taken for the implementation of information systems; including such methods as interactive, on-line, real-time, transaction, batch, data and time driven. The method selected depends upon the derived logical processes and is based upon the analysis of timing and economics required to meet the information needs. The basic processing constructs include: sequence (consecutive progression), iteration (repetition until a condition is met), and choice (selection of path). The use of transactions is also an inherent part of all processing. (See Batch, Interactive, and Transaction).
Product Structure - a hierarchy that defines various levels of detail in a product's structure, from general to specific. This hierarchy defines the assemblies, sub-assemblies, and parts of the product. This becomes the basis for the design and development of the product.
Productivity - producing the correct results in the most efficient means possible. It is measured by effectiveness ("Are we doing the right things?") and efficiency ("Are we doing things right?"). Productivity = Effectiveness X Efficiency.
Program - a set of computer-executable instructions that perform a step within a computer procedure. Programs can be linked together to form a computer procedure. A program may be subdivided into modules if so desired.
Program Generator - an application development aid for producing program source code, usually for a procedural language such as COBOL. It should not be mistaken as a systems generator, but rather as a software generator. (See Fourth Generation Language, and Report Writer).
Programmer/Programming (see Software Engineering)
Project - a scope of work consisting of one or more phases. A project is an application of the material and human resources to a specific objective through the execution of a prescribed sequence of events. All projects have a structure which usually consists of a beginning (for planning), a middle (for execution), and an end (for review).
Project Management - the function of applying resources to a defined goal and obtaining this goal within time and cost objectives. Project management is people management oriented, not clerical or administratively oriented. A Project Manager is sometimes called a "project leader," "team leader," "foreman," or "contractor."
Project Management System - an information system used to support project management activities. The system does not make decisions, people do, based on information received from the system.
Project Network - refers to a project's work breakdown structure; this specifically includes the phases, activities and tasks of the project, along with the precedent relationships between them (denoting the sequence of project execution). (See Methodology and Precedent Relationships).
Project Plan - a defined plan for executing a project. A Project Plan should specify: 1. The methodology for the project, including the phases, activities, and steps required to execute the project, along with their sequencing, and; 2. The human and machine resources required to perform the work, including both internal and external resources.
Project Scope - the statement of a particular business problem and/or opportunity to be addressed by a project and the organizational entities that will be affected, both directly and indirectly.
Prototyping - to develop an actual physical archetype of a product to some scale. The prototype is used for testing in order to visualize and evaluate the performance of the product and to make recommendations for improvement prior to the final design. Prototyping is used in the preparation of illustrative examples (See Modeling and Illustrative Examples).
Pushbutton - input device in a web "form" to cause an action; for example:
Quality Assurance (QA) - a function concerned with building quality into a product during design, not inspecting for quality after the fact. Quality assurance is a shared responsibility and not a single job description in a company. Quality is judged by how well the product conforms to specifications.
Quantitative Data - data dealing with numeric values that are either calculated or are calculable. Measurements and computations are typical examples: "Net-Pay," "Quantity Ordered," "Elapsed Time," "Percent of Gross," etc. It is sometimes difficult to differentiate Quantitative data from Indicative data. Indicative data will often use numeric values for identification purposes, such as "Invoice Number," "Purchase Order Number," "Customer Number," etc. However, it would be a mistake to use these numbers for quantitative purposes (aside from counting the number of occurrences). (See Descriptive Data and Indicative Data).
RAD - initials for Rapid Application Development; design technique for programming involving the use of special application development tools (CASE) to expedite the development of a program (not an Information System).
Radio Button - input device used in a web "form" to select between two or more options; for example:
RAM - Random Access Memory - referring to the computer's memory.
Record - a collection of one or more data elements. (See Data Element, and File).
Refresh/Reload - a function of a web browser; it a web page changes in content, the browser can refresh the page so that it appears up-to-date.
Report Writer - an application development aid used to produce special reports based on an analysis of computer based data. (See Information Center, Fourth Generation Language, and Program Generator).
Resource - a re-usable source of supply to produce something. Examples include human, financial, material, and information resources. To maximize the efficient and effective use of resources, they must be classified in order to share them and eliminate unwanted redundancy, and controlled in order to receive, store and distribute them properly.
Response Time - an attribute of timing that defines the maximum processing time allowable from the start of the execution (offset) to when it must be performed. Response time can be expressed in seconds, minutes, hours, days, etc. (See Frequency, Information, and Offset).
Return On Investment (ROI) - the ratio of projected cost savings versus
amount invested. Typically calculated as:
ROI% = (Average Annual Savings divided by Investment) X 100
REXX - Restructured Extended Executor procedure language; a powerful computer command language that makes use of simple statements.
ROM - Read Only Memory - cannot write to the device.
Rough Designs - preliminary designs of a product which are used for estimating, scheduling and planning purposes. Rough designs are a useful aid for determining the complexities and dimensions of a product. (See System Concept Diagram).
RSS initials for Rich Site Summary (sometimes known as Really Simple Syndication). An Internet implemented technique for syndicating news headlines, links to recent articles, descriptions, and even images, not only for web browsers but also to a variety of devices such as PDAs, cell phones, e-mail ticklers, and voice update pagers. RSS was first developed by Netscape and is a very basic implementation of XML (see listing).
Scanner - an input device used to scan in documents and convert them into a computer readable format.
SCSI - initials for Small Computer System Interface (pronounced "SCUZY"); a type of computer hard drive (disk).
Search engine - a program on the Internet that searches for web sites based on keywords requested by the user.
Selection List - (also known as a Drop Down List) - input device used in a web "form" to select one option from many; press the down arrow in this example to see your choices:
Server - refers to a type of computer used to store and manage computer resources, and share them with outside computer ("clients") via communication links. For example, a "web server" is a computer dedicated to managing and allowing access to web pages; a "mail server" manages e-mail, etc.
SGML - Standard Generalized Markup Language - this is a standard for describing markup languages like HTML.
Shareware - computer software you are allowed to trial before purchasing. Shareware is not "freeware" (see listing); if you like it, you should buy it.
Skills - specific knowledge or talents as developed by education and/or experience. Proficiency denotes level of skill.
SIMM - initials for Single Inline Memory Module; a type of computer memory module.
SLIP - Serial Line Internet Protocol - allows you to setup a point-to-point connection between two TCP/IP hosts over a serial line, such as a serial cable or an RS-232 connection into a modem and over a telephone line.
SMIL - Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language (pronounced "smile) - a programming language that enable authors to bring television-like audio-video content to the WWW over low-bandwidth connections.
SMP - Symmetrical Processing; operating systems with the ability to operate with multiple microprocessors concurrently.
Software (computer) - machine processable instructions for operating a specific computer. There are two aspects to computer software: "system software" which is concerned with the basic operational needs required to operate computer hardware (i.e., operating systems, communication utilities, performance monitors, editors, compilers, etc.), and; "application software" which is concerned with having the computer perform specialized tasks to assist users in their work effort.
Software Engineering - a subset of information systems engineering which is concerned with the analysis of computer processing specifications, designing programs that will be the most appropriate solution to satisfying these specifications, defining the machine operating instructions for executing the programs, and successfully producing executable object code for a computer. The objectives of Software Engineering are:
Sound Card - a type of card inserted into a PC enabling it to receive and transmit audio.
Source Code - the ASCII text used to actually compile a program. Source code is written according to the rules of a specific language (e.g., COBOL, Java, C, Pascal, Basic, etc.). (See Object Code).
Source, Data - the point of origin for a specific data element. A data element source can come from either a user area or, if generated, from some calculation or formula.
Spam - slang expression referring to "junk e-mail". "Spamming" is when someone mass distributes junk e-mail.
Spell-checker - a feature in a word processor or text editor capable of checking the correct spelling of words.
Spider - software used by certain web search engines when registering a new web address (URL). Upon submission of the URL, the spider automatically goes over the web to verify the existance and contents of the web site (called "spidering").
Spooler - a special computer directory where print requests are sent to.
SQL - initials for Structured Query Language; a query language used to manipulate data in a DBMS.
Structured Programming - an expression used to categorize organized program design techniques. Structured programming adheres to a set of prescribed rules and standards used to produce a program. Its purpose is to provide programs that are easy to maintain and modify. It is simply one alternative to software engineering. Other alternatives include a 4GL, report writers, or program generators. (See Object Oriented Programming).
Sub-Assembly - a portion of an assembly used to bring together parts to build a product. In IRM terms, an assembly is represented by a sub-system and a sub-assembly is represented by procedures. (See Assembly, and Information System).
Sub-System - a business process or "work flow" within an information system which consists of inputs, outputs, and files used to produce specific information within a particular time frame. When initiated, sub-systems are executed to their logical conclusion and consist of one or more administrative procedures and not more than one computer procedure. The procedures can be executed serially or concurrently depending on flow or process in logic. Sub-systems relate to each other through the data base.
Subroutine - the smallest unit of program source code which can be invoked at program execution time by other subroutines (within the same module or other modules) to perform tasks. Its attributes include: it may or may not be re-usable or re-entrant to itself (it should have only one entry point); it is not compilable by itself; it is language dependant and can call or be called (by other subroutines). Depending on program language used, a subroutine may be referred to as a "function" or a "section."
Suite - a collection of common programs, typically used in an office; e.g., word processor, spreadsheet, graphics, data base, etc. Examples of office suites include Lotus SmartSuite, and Microsoft Office.
Surf the web - jumping from one web page to another through links embedded in the pages.
Surge Protector - a device to prevent power surges which may harm electrical equipment (such as PC's and modems). (See UPS).
Swapper File - using Virtual Memory, the computer's operating system will move data in and out of memory and place it temporarily on the hard drive in a dynamic file called the "Swapper". (See Virtual Memory).
System - an orderly arrangement, grouping or combination of one or more elements which form a whole. Its purpose is to accomplish specific goals or objectives. It operates routinely in a specific and predictable manner. (See Information System).
System Concept Diagram - the purpose of the System Concept Diagram is to communicate to users the concepts and approaches that will be used to meet their information needs. This diagram is based on the rough designs of the system, which in turn are based on the information requirements. Although there are no formal standards for this diagram, it should show who/what/when and how the system will perform. (See Rough Design).
System Life Cycles - Expression commonly used in the field to refer to a methodology or a project. Unfortunately, it is incorrect. Systems do not have life cycles. They will go on forever if kept viable with change. Projects, which are scopes of work, have life cycles. They have a beginning for planning, a middle for execution, and an end for review.
System Software - concentrates on the basic operational needs of the computer hardware and is represented by the operating system. The expression itself, "System" Software, is perhaps a misnomer in that it has nothing to do with Information Systems. Instead, it is only concerned with operating the computer.
Systems Analysis - The discipline of specifying user information requirements, designing a logical system that can produce the required information, determining the most appropriate way to physically process data, and to successfully implement the physical system. The objectives of the Systems Analyst are:
T1, T2, T3 - specifies the transmission timer for NetBIOS links. Represents three different types of data communications line.
Table - the display of data in columns and rows; for example:
|Col 1||Col 2||Col 3|
TCP/IP - Transport Control Protocol/Internet Protocol - an NDIS-compliant communications protocol that integrates unlike computer systems and networks.
Terminal Emulator - software used to contact other computers with special communications software (such as a Bulletin Board).
Thumbnail - slang expression referring to a smaller graphic image (such as a JPG or GIF file) that can be enlarged by clicking on it with a mouse.
Transaction - an exchange event from one object to another. A transaction always has some form of action associated with it. For output reporting, "request," "display," "print," "extract," "search," etc. are common transactions. For input, "new," "add," "change," "delete," "update," "charge," "credit," "debit," "deposit," etc. are typical transactions. (See Batch, Interactive, and Processing Method).
UNIX - computer operating system invented by Bell Labs. UNIX computers represent the principal types of Internet "server" computers used by ISP's. Variations of UNIX include AIX, Linux, and Solaris.
Unordered List - expresses how a list of data is to displayed in a web page; in random order with bullets to highlight the line item; for example:
Upload - sending a file from your computer to another.
UPS - initials for Uninterrupted Power Supply; equipment to prevent an uninterrupted supply of electricity for PC equipment. Ideally, a UPS should be plugged into a Surge Protector (see listing).
URL - Uniform Resource Locator - reference to a proper Internet address.
User-ID - Defines how a person is identified upon logging on to the Internet. A User-ID is typically followed by a password.
User Friendly - an expression referring to the ease of use/processing of a system.
Utility - referring to a type of computer program used to manage a computer; e.g., sort, clipboard viewer, etc.
Virtual Memory - a technique which gives the computer seemingly limitless memory for processing. In reality, data is written back to the computer disk temporarily until it is needed again for processing in RAM. (See Swapper File).
VoIP - Voice over Internet Protocol; software enabling the transfer of audio and video data over the Internet. An Internet Telephone essentially works in the same manner as a regular telephone, providing the means to dial and talk with another person (but without any long distance charges).
W3C - World Wide Web Consortium - organized group for establishing standards on the WWW.
WAN - Wide Area Network - allowing multiple computers within a large geographical area to communicate and share computer resources (see LAN).
WAV - referring to a sound "wave"; an audio file format used in multimedia.
Web Authoring Tool - software used to simplify the process of creating a web page.
Web browser - computer software used to read web pages on the Internet; examples: the Netscape Navigator, Internet Explorer and IBM WebExplorer.
Web counter - a simple counter in a web page to count (and display) the number of times a web page has been visited.
WebExplorer - web browser developed by the International Business Machines Corporation and provided with OS/2.
Web Master - a person who manages an Internet Service Provider (ISP).
Windows - Representing different versions of operating systems by Microsoft Corporation (registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation). Versions include Windows 3.x, Windows 95/98, Windows CE (Compact Edition) and Windows 2000 (formerly NT).
Wintel - slang expression for the close working relationship between Windows (Microsoft) and Intel (chip manufacturer).
WWW - World Wide Web - an Internet protocol requiring special software to access and display a web page (or document) with text and graphics.
WYSIWYG - What You See Is What You Get - term used in reference to the layout and appearance of a web page using a software tool to build the web page.
XML - eXtensible Markup Language - tag language used for developing web pages.
Y2K - reference to Year 2000 (2K)
Yahoo! - refers to a popular search engine on the Internet (http://www.yahoo.com/)
ZIP - expression used in reference to data compression (shrinking a large file to ease transmission over communication lines). Term is based on the PKZIP/UNZIP product line from PKWARE, Inc.